Sfaturi XP

Sfaturi si trucuri pentru Windows XP

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Motherboard repair

Motherboard repair and trouble shooting

Consider this: Do you have the tools and knowledge to do low
level component repair? Do you know what I mean by low level
component repair?
If no is the answer to either of these questions then there is no repairing the motherboard
for you. There is however things that can be done to a main board that is malfunctioning
that does not require repair of the board itself. So this section will deal with trouble
shooting and things that can be repaired/replaced.
Before opening your computer case check the safety precautions !!
If you have a proprietary computer there in not a lot you can do besides diagnose your
problem then call the manufacture support and get it replaced.
Trouble shooting motherboard problems.
Most manufactures buy their bios from programming houses like Phoenix. Some
manufactures have their own in house bios programs, like Compaq (now HP). These bios
programs have a section for diagnostics, some of them are accessible by the user others
are not. Most have a way to tell you there is a problem with the computer, these are
„post” codes (Power On System Test). Some also have „beep” codes, the computer
speaker beeps a certain code for different failures. The main thing is when you turn on
the computer you either get a number on the screen, the computer starts beeping, or it
dumps into the BIOS setup screen.
I can not list all post and beep codes here but they can be found by noting the BIOS
program name when the computer starts up, then searching the web for the codes by the
programming house name.
From the post or beep code you get a general idea of what the problem is. Memory?
Video? Keyboard? Mouse? and so on.
Most problems with components can be resolved fairly easily and quickly. Sometimes
reseating the component will take care of the problem. Sometimes removing the
component and putting it back in will clear the problem. If the problems persist after
reseating it then it is dead, needs to be replaced.

Repararea unui CD/DVD ROM

CD Rom or DVD Rom Drive repair
DIY-Computer-Repair can help!
Dead CD ROM or DVD ROM drive, repair or replace?
As I mentioned in the introduction, repair of components is not economically viable. A
really observant and talented individual could repair a failed cd rom, if it was a
mechanical failure. Or if you had two of the same model drives, one that failed
electronically and one that failed mechanically, you could change out the bad circuit
board on the mechanical failed drive for the good circuit board and save your self thirty
dollars. Or you could go buy a brand new one and replace it.
Check the case page for opening case and precautions. Remember Safety First!
Before you loosen up the drive you should disconnect the power cable, the drive
cable, and the Audio cable. If you can not get your hand into the space to disconnect the
cables pull the drive carefully out until you can gripe the cables. Usually the IDE Drive
Cable will pull loose with a little force, there is a latch on the Audio cable. The cable that
will give you problems is the power cable, they are made to not vibrate loose. You can
use a pair of pliers to wiggle it loose, do not squeeze it to hard, it is plastic and will break,
with a firm grip on the plug, working it back and forth while pulling gently will get it
loose.
Note the wide cable, it is the IDE Connection cable, it will have a red stripe down one
side. This indicates the # 1 pin side of the cable connector. Some cables that have been in
the computer for a long time tend to harden from time and heat, you should not have to
change the routing of the cable. Some cable connectors have a guide pin that will match
the connector on the drive, this keeps you from connecting the cable backwards, some
don’t that is why you have to note the stripe. Look at both drives, the IDE cable connector
should be orientated the same, note the notch for the cable in the connector on the drive,
are they both orientated the same or are they opposite? If they are opposite then you will
have to reorient the IDE cable before you install the drive.
Look at the back of the drive, next to the cable connectors there should be a double row
of small brass pins. These pins are called jumper pins. You will see one or two small
plastic covers (called Jumpers) over some of the pins. On the drive there should be a
diagram that will tell you what the covered pins do, this is the drive selection.
Your choices for the drive selection are:
Master
Slave
Cable select
Set the old drive aside, check the new drive, you need to match the drive select pin
setting on the new drive to what the old drive has. Either Master (two drives on same
cable and this is the primary drive), Slave (two drives on the same cable and this is the
secondary drive), or Cable Select (best selection for a single drive on a cable).
Once you have the drive selection set, reverse the removal sequence to install the drive.
Once you have the cables reconnected and the drive back in it’s bay put the cover back on
the computer. I do not recommend powering up the computer with the cover off.
Check the drive:
When you power up the drive the startup sequence checks all drives, you should see
the cd drive activity light come on, push the drive eject button, the tray should open if
not, power the system down, you have a problem. (go to trouble shooting)
If you have power to the drive let the computer power up, put a cd in the drive, see if you
can access the drive

#CARACTERISTICILE PROCESORULUI

Creierul unui calculator PC este procesorul, numit şi unitate centrală de
prelucrare CPU (Central Processing Unit). Rolul acestuia este de a executa calculul
şi prelucrarea datelor din sistem cu excepţia calculelor matematice complexe pe care
le execută coprocesorul.
1) Principalele caracteristici ale procesoarelor sunt:
♦ Magistrala de date
O magistrală este un grup de conexiuni ce transferă semnale comune. Un
procesor are două magistrale importante pentru transferul datelor şi informaţiilor
privitoare la adresarea memoriei: magistrala de date şi magistrala de adrese.
Cea mai importantă este cea de date: ansamblul liniilor utilizate pentru a
trimite şi recepţiona date. Un procesor pe 32 de biţi are o magistrală de date pe 32 de
biţi, deci transmite simultan 4 octeţi.
Citește în continuare »

#Unitati uzuale de masura a memoriei

UNITĂŢI UZUALE DE MĂSURĂ A MEMORIEI
Un byte este o succesiune de 8 biţi. El reprezintă unitatea de bază a capacităţii
de memorie. Bytul, notat B şi multiplii săi reprezintă unităţi de măsură a capacităţii
de memorare atât pentru memoria internă a calculatorului, cât şi pentru alte
dispozitive.
Deoarece reprezentarea numerelor în calculator se face în baza 2 şi nu în baza
zece, aşa cum suntem obişnuiţisă lucrăm în mod normal, şi multiplii byte-ului vor fi
puteri ale lui 2 şi nu ale lui 10.
Astfel:
1 KB = 210 B = 1024 B şi nu 103 = 1000 B
1 MB = 210 KB = 1024 KB = 1048576 B
1 GB = 210 MB = 1024 MB = 1048576 KB = 1073741824 B
1 TB = 210 GB = 1024 GB = 1048576 MB = 1073741824 KB
Abrevierile K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga) şi T (tera) se scriu cu litere mari şi
reprezintî mii, milioane, miliarde şi respectiv biliarde.
Astăzi, dimensiunile obişnuite ale hard-discurilor sunt de ordinul GB iar ale
memoriei RAM instalate de ordinul MB.

#Schimba titlul browserului

Change the Browser Title

This tweak Customize the Title of the Internet Explorer.

1. Click Start > Run > Type gpedit.msc
2. Click User Configuration > Windows Setting > Internet Explorer Maintenance > Browser User Interface
3. Double click on Browser Title
4. Click on Customize Title Bars
5. type in whatever you want
6. Click OK

Now you changed the title of your browser and you sure see what you wrote when you
open a New Widow.

#Keyboard shortcuts – Lista generala

CTRL+C (Copy)

CTRL+X (Cut)

CTRL+V (Paste)

CTRL+Z (Undo)

DELETE (Delete)

SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without
placing the item in the Recycle Bin)

CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)

CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the
selected item)

F2 key (Rename the selected item)

CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of
the next word)

CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of
the previous word)

CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of
the next paragraph)

CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of
the previous paragraph)

CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of
text)
Citește în continuare »

#HDD – Cu si despre

De performantele harddisk-ului depind in cea mai mare masura performantele intregului sistem. Achizitionarea unui harddisk modern este principala masura de imbunatatire a performantelor sistemului.
…Performantele harddisk-ului depind de timpul mediu de acces (trebuie sa fie cit mai mic), rata de transfer (trebuie sa fie cit mai mare), bus-ul sistemului, controler-ul de hdd folosit (EIDE, ATA). Pentru hdd-urile de peste 504 MB se folosesc modurile de adresare extinse (LBA XCHS).
…Durata de viata a hdd-ului depinde foarte mult de pozitia de montare a acestuia. Pozitia normala este cu fata in sus (de cele mai multe ori pe spate se vad componentele electronice). Ideala ar fi montarea pe cant (dar aceasta este mai dificil de realizat in interiorul carcasei). Atentie la lungimea suruburilor de prindere.
Formatare si partitionare…
Citește în continuare »

#Tipuri de retele

Avem in primul rand doua mari categorii de retele: retele de tip LAN (Local Area Network) si retele de tip WAN (Wide Area Network).
• Retea LAN este constituita din mai multe calculatoare care alcatuiesc o retea, de regul reteaua e construita in interiorul unei cladiri sau cel mult pe o distanta de cateva cladiri (din cauza unor restrictii de tip hardware – Exceptie fac LAN-urile cu transmisie de date prin cablu cu fibra optica).
• LAN – Topologie de retea: Retelele de acest tip pot fi construite in mai multe feluri ce difera intre ele prin intermediul modului de conectare a calculatoarelor intre ele.
Citește în continuare »

#Deosebirile dintre RAM si ROM

Memoria ROM este in general utilizata pentru a stoca BIOS-ul (Basic Input Output System) unui PC. In practica, o data cu evolutia PC-urilor acest timp de memorie a suferit o serie de modificari care au ca rezultat rescrierea/arderea „flash” de catre utilizator a BIOS-ului. Scopul, evident, este de a actualiza functiile BIOS-ului pentru adaptarea noilor cerinte si realizari hardware ori chiar pentru a repara unele imperfectiuni de functionare. Astfel ca in zilele noastre exista o multitudine de astfel de memorii ROM programabile (PROM, EPROM, etc) prin diverse tehnici, mai mult sau mai putin avantajoase in functie de gradul de complexitate al operarii acestora.
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